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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
Jan-Jun 2020
Volume 9 | Issue 15
Page Nos. 1-38

Online since Monday, May 11, 2020

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Clinical success of fixed space maintainers: Conventional band and loop versus fiber-reinforced composite loop space maintainer p. 1
Reena Rani, Sanjay Chachra, Abhishek Dhindsa, Manu Sharma
DOI:10.4103/nnjcr.nnjcr_32_19  
Aim: The study aimed to compare the clinical efficacy of two fixed space maintainers and conventional band and loop and fiber-reinforced composite resin (FRCR) space maintainers. Subjects and Methods: Thirty healthy children, aged 6–8 years were selected having at least two deciduous molars in different quadrants indicated for extraction or lost previously. Band and loop space maintainer was cemented in one quadrant, and in the other quadrant, FRCR space maintainer was placed. All the patients were recalled at the 1st, 3rd, 6th, and 9th months, and retention of both the types of space maintainers was evaluated. Statistical Analysis Used: The observations thus obtained were subjected to the statistical analysis using the ANOVA test and post-hoc Tukey test. Results: The retention of the FRCR space maintainer was found to be superior to that of the band and loop space maintainer, and this difference was statistically significant. Conclusion: FRCR (Ribbond) space maintainers can be considered alternative to the conventional band and loop space maintainers.
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Dental caries, missing teeth, and oral health behavior among smokers p. 7
Clement Chinedu Azodo, Agnes O Umoh
DOI:10.4103/nnjcr.nnjcr_22_19  
Objective: To determine dental caries, missing teeth, and oral health behavior among smokers and to correlate same with nicotine dependence. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out among smokers and age-matched nonsmokers in Benin-City, Edo State Nigeria. Nicotine dependence, periodontal knowledge, subjectively rated periodontal status, and oral self-care were assessed with questionnaire while carious, missing, and filled teeth were recorded during oral examination. Results: The mean periodontal health knowledge was 1.65 for smokers and 2.75 for nonsmokers. The mean subjectively rated periodontal status was 4.25 for smokers and 3.40 for nonsmokers. The mean oral health behavior was 9.05 for smokers and 10.50 for nonsmokers. The mean carious teeth was 2.10 for smokers and was 1.00 for nonsmokers. Nicotine addiction was negative correlated with periodontal knowledge, oral behavior, carious teeth, filled teeth, and abrasion teeth but positively correlated with subjectively rated periodontal status and missing teeth. Conclusion: Smokers had lower periodontal knowledge, poorer subjectively rated periodontal health, poorer oral self-care behavior and more carious teeth than nonsmokers. Further studies to include smokers with high nicotine dependence are recommended.
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Young people's willingness to go for HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome counseling and testing in oluku community in South Nigeria p. 12
Kingsley Chinedu Okafor, Vincent Yakubu Adam, Emmanuel Chukwunonye Azuike, Greg Abiaziem
DOI:10.4103/nnjcr.nnjcr_33_19  
Background: Young people are vulnerable to HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) as they significantly contribute to new HIV infections in Nigeria and sub-Saharan Africa. HIV counseling and testing (HCT) provides an opportunity for increased awareness, prevention, treatment, care, and support for HIV/AIDS and contributes to the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS. Objective: This study aims to determine the HIV/AIDS awareness, knowledge of methods of prevention and transmission of HIV/AIDS, HIV status of sexual partner, and willingness to go for HIV/AIDS counseling and testing (HCT) among young people in Oluku Community, Ovia North East, local government, Edo State, South South, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted between January and June, 2013, using multistage sampling method. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaire adapted from the 2007 National HIV/AIDS and Reproductive Health Survey (NARHS) plus. Results: A total of 400 young people participated in this study; their mean age was 17.8 years (3.9 years). There were more females (211 [52.8%]) than males (189 [47.3%]). Majority (92.3%) of the young people were aware of HIV/AIDS; most heard of it via electronic media (81%), peers (63.5%), and parents (55.5%). Majority knew the methods of transmission of HIV/AIDS as having multiple sexual partners (80.0%), sharing sharps (78.3%), blood transmission (71.5%), and having unprotected sex (69.8%). Abstinence (50.1%) and condom use (37.8%) and faithfulness to partner (5.3%) were the methods practiced by most young people to prevent disease transmission and pregnancy. Most (61.9%) of the young people did not know the HIV/AIDS status of their partners before sexual intercourse. More than two-thirds (68.0%) had never gone for HCT, however majority (73.0%) of them were willing to go for HCT. Conclusion and Recommendations: Most young people were aware of HIV/AIDS and the methods of transmission, whereas more than two-thirds had never gone for HCT. However, majority of them were willing to go for HCT. Efforts should be geared toward improving access to HCT services by using stand-alone, mobile/outreach, and health facility-based HCT centers and community enlightenment on the importance of avoiding premarital sex and their roles in reducing HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infection transmission.
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Peripheral arterial disease and its predictors in type 2 diabetic patients in Nnewi, South-Eastern Nigeria p. 20
Ogonna Celestine Oguejiofor, Chikezie Hart Onwukwe, Chidiebele Malachy Ezeude, Ejike Kenneth Okonkwo, Justin Chibueze Nwalozie, Charles Uzoma Odenigbo, Charlotte Blanch Oguejiofor
DOI:10.4103/nnjcr.nnjcr_34_19  
Background: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a cause of foot disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Data on associated predictors of PAD in Nigerian T2DM patients are scanty, especially from Southeastern Nigeria. Objectives: The objective was to evaluate the prevalence and predictors of PAD in T2DM patients in Southeastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study involving consenting T2DM patients at the Diabetes Clinic of the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Southeastern Nigeria. History was obtained and physical examination was done on the study participants. Doppler ultrasound of the peripheral vessels was done using the Imex PD II Doppler device. Records of fasting plasma glucose on the day of Doppler assessment, glycated hemoglobin, fasting lipid profile, and electrocardiogram, done within the preceding 3 months, were obtained from the patients' clinic folders. PAD was defined as ankle–brachial pressure index <0.9 or >1.3. Data collection was done using researcher-administered study pro forma and analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20.P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Of 100 T2DM patients (45 males and 55 females) recruited for the study, 74 (30 [40.5%] males and 44 [59.5%] females) had a complete data for analysis. The prevalence of PAD among the study participants was 59.5%. Significant predictors of PAD include the duration of DM, abdominal obesity, hypertension, triglyceride (TG), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Conclusion: PAD is prevalent in T2DM patients in Southeastern Nigeria, with duration of DM, abdominal obesity, hypertension, TG, and HDL-C levels being significant predictors of PAD.
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Prevalence of urinary tract infections and risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in government primary health-care centers in Akure, Nigeria p. 24
Iyabo Adepeju Simon-Oke, Olatunji Odeyemi, Mobolanle Oniya
DOI:10.4103/nnjcr.nnjcr_18_19  
Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) has become the most common bacterial infection in humans, both at the community and hospital settings. It has been reported in all age groups and in both sexes. This is also a leading cause of Gram-negative sepsis in hospitalized patients. This study was carried out to identify and evaluate the associated risk factors of UTIs in relation to the sociodemographic characteristics among pregnant women in the study area. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from February to June, 2018, on the urine of pregnant women, and the sociodemographic information of the women was collected. A total of 300 clean midstream urine samples were collected, and a general urine microscopic examination and culture were carried out. Results: Out of the 300 urine samples cultured, 183 (61.0%) yielded significant growth of urinary pathogens, whereas 117 (39.0%) yielded either insignificant growth or no growth of any urinary pathogen. Prevalence of UTI was statistically significantly associated with the type of toilet used, symptoms of UTI, and previous history of UTI (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This study justifies that pregnant women are at high risk of UTI; therefore, screening of pregnant women during antenatal clinics should be considered very important to avoid complications. Health education with regular antenatal and personal hygiene is recommended as a precautionary measure to UTI.
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Self-reported ear symptoms among mobile phone users at a tertiary institution p. 31
Auwal Adamu, Abdulazeez Ahmed, Abdulakeem Aluko, Yasir Jibril Nuhu, Emmanuel Sara Kolo
DOI:10.4103/nnjcr.nnjcr_2_19  
Background: Globally, the use of mobile phones has increased considerably and as such there have been increasing concern about its effects on the ear. It was observed that university students used mobile phones excessively not only for communication purpose but also for leisure (such as listening to music/radio), thus possibly predisposing their ears to untoward effects. Aims: The aim was to determine the prevalence of self-reported ear symptoms among mobile phone users. Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional descriptive study, conducted among university students aged 16–40 years. Participants were recruited using multistage random sampling technique. A self-administered, pretested, and validated questionnaire was used to collect the data, which were analyzed using Statistical Product and Service Solution version 20.0. Results: A total of 388 participants were recruited into the study. The duration of usage of mobile phone ranged between 1 and 17 years with a mean of 7 ± 3.5 years. The time spent on phone use per day ranged between 1 and 16 h with a mean of 2.6 ± 2.3 h. The overall prevalence of self-reported ear symptoms was 29.1%. Eighty-four (21.6%) of the respondents had ear pain, 68 (17.5%) had tinnitus, 44 (11.3%) had hearing impairment, 20 (5.2%) had vertigo, and 38 (9.8%) had other symptoms. The self-reported ear symptoms were found to have a statistically significant association with the time spent on the phone per day (P = 0.001) and the duration of use of the phone in years (P = 0.001). Conclusions: The prevalence of self-reported ear symptoms among mobile phone users was low. More detailed studies on the association between mobile phone use and ear symptoms, particularly tinnitus and hearing impairment would be worthwhile.
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CASE REPORT Top

Myasthenia gravis-like symptoms in an adolescent with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis p. 36
Uduak Offiong, Peter Alabi
DOI:10.4103/nnjcr.nnjcr_14_17  
Juvenile onset amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (JALS) is a rare form of motor neuron disease. The symptoms of upper and lower motor neuron degeneration manifest before 25 years of age. Juvenile ALS is more frequently familial in nature though sporadic forms have been found to occur. Myasthenia gravis (MG) also a neuromuscular disorder shares some common features with ALS. There have been reports of atypical forms of juvenile ALS; however, the occurrence with MG in the same patient is a rare. Here is presented a 13-year-old male child with a history and clinical feature of JALS coexisting with MG symptomatology.
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